Marine pollution means introduction of harmful substances into the marine environment. Consistent pollution of water bodies has increased the amount of pollutant to such an extent that water bodies are facing irreparable damage at present. Research studies have revealed that more than 80% of the world marine pollution has it source on land, in the form of different pollutants, as an outcome of several human activities. Plastic contamination being the biggest threat to the marine eco-system, the list of marine environment pollutants remain long with pesticides, sewage, industrial chemical and other waste.
Major Causes of Pollution in the Marine Ecosystem:
Here we have enlisted the biggest reasons behind marine population that have been responsible for the death and extinction of thousands of aquatic animals and plants:
- Ocean Dumping: Waste materials from sewage plants, ship and industry are dump into the water bodies on a regular basis, polluting the marine environment to a great extend. As per report, Mining companies along from all over the world dump as much as to 20 million tonnes of waste of garbage directly into the ocean every year. What we often tend to forget is that our lives depend on the marine environment extensively and the negative impact of dumping waste in the ocean does not just affects marine life but also pose health threat to human being.
- Dredging: As industrial activities are always expanding in the world, dredging is an activity that increases marine transportation. So it has been disturbing the marine eco-system for several years. As dredging involves removal of deposits that are submerged under the water, this activity changes the composition of soil on the ocean floor, resulting in destruction of habitat for organisms and creatures.
- Waste Pollution cause by Ship: Thousands of ships are used to carry on tray all over the world. Apart from pollutant like gas and oil, the garbage and waste generated on ships poses a potential thread to the aquatic eco-system. Both liquid and solid waste like food waste, packing material, cleaning material, grey water, rags, ballast water etc. Pollute the water and badly affects lives of marine animals.
- Land Runoff: Another major source of marine pollution is the garbage arising from the nonpoint source, happening as an outcome of runoff. Surface runoff from agricultural land carry soil with particles containing nitrogen carbon, phosphorus and other minerals, Killing marine plants and animals in alarming rates. The ocean water full off toxic chemicals results in dangerous algal blooms. Water pollution of this kind threatens the turtles, shrimp, Fish etc, and also human being via the food chain.
- Rising Level of Sea Water: Sea water levels are increasing alarmingly because of the global warming disturbing the marine environment. As per report, the yearly rate of rise in the level of the sea water in the last two decades has been as much as 0.13 inches per year. This is why we need to educate us regarding the causes as well as affects of the rising of the sea water level for sake of bio-diversity.
- Noise Pollution Causes by Ships: Science has proves that noise pollution cause by the ships is dangerous for marine organisms. Harmful consequences of noise pollution on aquatic species include damage of internal organs, panic response to unknown sounds haemorrhages and altered diving pattern. As noise travels at a greater speed in water than in land, the intensity of sound pollution is much higher in the ocean environment and marine life id highly sensitive to these noises.
- Ocean Acidification: The matter of ocean acidification is rapidly becoming a major concern for both human and marine lives. Ocean acidification means continues decrease of pH level of seawater caused due to absorption of CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) from the earth’s atmosphere. Ocean acidification greatly endangers our marine life. This also proves pernicious to human beings who rely on fish products and fish for their sustenance.
In the past few years, several steps have been taken to reduce the levels of marine pollution. However, when it comes to protecting and conserving our water bodies we still have a long way to go. We have to find more ways of cleaning our lakes and oceans and create awareness for protection and preservation of marine environment.