In an ecosystem, there are some complex interactions and dependencies between the organisms such as animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria. These organisms together make up some community and they interact among themselves in several ways.
Now there is a term called food chain in which we’ll find the producer, consumer, prey, and predator. The organisms sustain by maintaining such relationship both in the water cycle and the oxygen cycle. If any of this ecosystem gets disturbed due to pollution, then the full natural system will get disturbed which adversely affects different organisms in various ways. Let us have some idea on how air and water pollution have negative impacts on the ecosystem.
How Air Pollution Affects The Ecosystem?
Air pollution can harm the full ecological balance including soil quality, water quality, animals, and plants. Ozone, for example, damages the plant tissues and reduce the growth of some sensitive plants species. If you are very eager to understand and know about where and how air pollution affects the ecosystems then please read on.
Sulphur and Nitrogen produced due to air pollution are carried by snow, fog, and rain into the park ecosystem thereby threatening the sensitive terrestrial and aquatic resources. If the Sulphur and Nitrogen compounds are deposited on soil and water vapor then it may lead to the acidification of water bodies like lakes and soil. These may hence result in the disruption of the soil quality, loss of natural nutrient cycling and alteration of plant communities.
Toxic compounds (such as pesticides) and metals (like mercury) are deposited from the air and bioaccumulate in the food chain which causes behavioral, reproductive and neurological effects in wildlife, fishes, and birds.
How Water Pollution Affects The Ecosystem?
If pollutants like detergents, oil, lead, phosphate, and nitrogen from fertilizers make the water polluted then there can be the immense impact on the ecosystem. The lake ecosystem, for example, may get fully disrupted by the stimulation of growth in plants and by the death of fishes due to suffocation due to lack of oxygen. The oxygen cycle will be stopped.The polluted water will affect the organisms as well, who are dependant on the water bodies.
Compounds that are added to the watersheds may be foreign or natural, they’ll definitely have the negative impact if the flora and the fauna can’t adapt to them. These may sway the balance in the ecosystem which may result in the extinction of many rare and common species of the water bodies.
Mostly affected species
There are many plants and animals who are highly susceptible to the water pollution effects.
- Amphibians, for example, are very sensitive to pollution simply because the harmful chemicals from the water are absorbed through their skin. This leads to the distress of many amphibian populations.
- Addition of detergents to water causes the insects unable to walk on water, who have otherwise the proper ability to walk on water.
Younger animals are also highly affected due to water pollution as they’ve greater sensitivity to many chemical and organic mimic compounds. These effects may range from the alteration of neurochemistry to the physiological effects like thinning of eggshells and suffocation.