Aren’t you complaining that this summer is hotter than the previous one? Well! It is not just your vague imagination but a fact. According to a monthly analysis of global temperatures by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS) in New York, May 2018 was the fourth warmest May in 138 years of modern record-keeping.
There are more shreds of evidence that there is an Earth-wide temperature boost. In the recent past 50 years, the surface temperature, ocean heat content, humidity, flooding, drought and intense violent storms have ascended. There is a need for cutting down greenhouse gas emission by approx. 10 billion tons per year by 2030 in order to avoid a 2-degree Celsius increase in temperature.
What and why climate change is happening
When we say climate, we generally refer to three main factors- the solar radiation, change in temperature, and the variable climate based on physical and biological conditions. About 49% of sun’s radiation is absorbed by the earth surface while 20% is absorbed by the atmosphere. The solar radiation warms the earth surface, which in turn radiates it back into space. About 90% of this warmth is consumed by greenhouse gases to maintain normal warming that is just required to sustain lives on our planet.
This means that we need greenhouse gases but the anthropogenic activities such as excessive mining which emits high methane quantity, high emission of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons via industries, vehicles, sites, etc. and deforestation which results in lowered amount of oxygen supply in the atmosphere playing tricks in shattering the balance of greenhouse gases. Their damage intensity can be known from the fact the carbon dioxide emergence level has expanded from 250 ppm (parts per million) to 400 ppm over the recent 100 years.
Some Noticeable Effects
All ill-effects of adverse climate change are visible enough to understand how bad the situation is. The way water bodies are being affected due to global warming, they are disturbing the other resources such as health, food supply, industry, transportation and biological integrity, leading to the deadly diseases, both for the human and animal kingdom.
There are tons of incidents around the globe that shows us a real picture of the declining atmosphere
- The intense effect on the agriculture leads to 1.5 percent loss in India’s GDP.
- The weather conditions are declining the production of sustaining crops to 4-9 percent every year.
- Higher levels of CO2 are reducing nutritional values of some crops, causing ill effects on food supply.
- The annual rise in sea level since 1993 is recorded to be 3.39 millimeters.
- Arctic Sea ice is now declining at the rate of 13.2 percent per decade.
What we, as individual & society can do
Firstly, do not wait for some disaster to happen on a large scale. Every small or medium size environmental problem we are facing, as an individual or as a small society must be taken as a high-alert. The concept is to reduce your contribution of adverse carbon print in nature. Few suggestions that one can incorporate in its daily living, can become a combined effort towards fighting against global warming and climate change.
- Lower the burning of Fossil Fuel.
- Reduce the use of individual transportation means. Think of vehicle pooling.
- Stop cutting down trees. Plant a tree wherever possible
- Unplug your devices when they are not in use. This will conserve the energy consumption.
- Upgrade industrial structure and machinery for lower pollution substitutes.
- And most importantly, spread the awareness about climate change, especially in rural areas.
- Read and understand laws like Climate Change Act 2016(Mitigation and Adaptation Framework), Energy Act 2006, National Environmental Policy 2013, National Policy for Disaster Management to keep yourself and others in check.
There was a video from Punjab on a social media platform wherein a charity lunch, the hosts were distributing plant saplings as “Prasad” (Gods blessed food) to the participants. This is a great step towards achieving our green and favorable environment back, for us and for all our future generations to come.
Climate Change: How the Thawing Arctic Permafrost is Driving Climate Change
Permafrost, or permanent frost, is defined as ground that is totally frozen. The ground temperature has to reach 32°F (0°C) or colder for at least two years in a row before it is known as permafrost. Traditionally, these permanently frozen grounds are most common in regions with high mountains as well as near the earth’s North and South Poles. However, climate change is causing this frozen soil to melt, resulting in disastrous consequences as seen below.
“I’ve starred in a lot of science fiction movies and, let me tell you something, climate change is not science fiction. This is a battle in the real world, it is impacting us right now.” – Arnold Schwarzenegger, Actor & Former Governor of California
Climate Change: What is permafrost?
The soil, rocks, and sand are bonded together by ice which is why it stays frozen all year round. Statistics show that almost 25% of the earth’s surface in the Northern Hemisphere is frozen or has permafrost underneath its top layers.
It’s vital to note that the ground does not have to be covered with snow for it to be frozen. And, the top layer, or the active layer, of soil does not stay frozen twelve months of the year. It’s just the lower layers that remain frozen. The active layer defrosts during the summer months and refreezes again in the autumn or fall when the temperatures start dropping.
Finally, the depth of the active layer versus the permafrost layer is dependent on how warm the summer months are.
Climate change versus Permafrost: The long-term effects on each other
The Arctic permafrost is melting as a consequence of global warming. Well, strictly speaking, it is the ice inside the soil, rocks, and sand that is melting, resulting in wet soil or a combination of water, soil, and rocks. There are several negative consequences of this, namely,
Increase in greenhouse gasses
Renee Cho, in her article titled, “Why Thawing Permafrost Matters,” states that the permafrost can be anything from 3 feet to 4 900 feet thick. “It stores the carbon-based remains of plants and animals that froze before they could decompose.” And, scientists believe that the world’s permafrost “holds 1,500 billion tons of carbon, almost double the amount of carbon that is currently in the atmosphere.”
When the ground is frozen, the organic material in the soil cannot decompose. This is known as organic carbon. And, as the ground defrosts, this material starts breaking down, carbon dioxide and methane are released into the air; thereby, increasing the greenhouse gasses.
Destroys urban settlement areas
A sizeable number of the villages in the Arctic Circle like Bethel, Alaska are built on permafrost. And, the melting permafrost is causing houses and other urban structures like roads and bridges to collapse. In other villages, cemeteries are sinking into a watery quagmire, which are preventing Alaskan residents from burying their dead.
Releases ancient bacteria and viruses
The permafrost contains bacteria and viruses that are mixed in with the organic carbon material that did not decompose before the earth’s far northern surface areas froze. The melting of these areas is releasing these bacteria and viruses; thereby, increasing the chances of making people and animals very sick because they have no immunity against these ancient microbes.
Laura Geggel, from NBC news describes the following scenario:
“For the past 15,000 years, a glacier on the northwestern Tibetan Plateau of China has hosted a party for some unusual guests: an ensemble of frozen viruses, many of them unknown to modern science.”
Scientists studying these viruses took two ice core samples from the glacier and discovered thirty-three groups of virus genera, of which 28 have never been seen before.
This glacier is melting, and, in a worst-case situation, these viruses could be released into the environment, contaminating water sources and food sources; thereby, risking human and animal lives.
The consequences of the loss of the Northern Arctic permafrost are serious. The more the permafrost melts, the more greenhouse gasses are released into the atmosphere, the more the permafrost melts, and so on. Finally, it is clear that something radical must be done to prevent this cycle from continuing.
Climate Change: The Relationship Between the Earth and the Sun
“Climate change is real. It is happening right now, it is the most urgent threat facing our entire species, and we need to work collectively together and stop procrastinating.” – Leonardo Di Caprio, Actor & Environmentalist
Have you ever wondered what the relationship between the earth and the sun is? And, has this relationship changed in recent history? And, if this relationship has changed, has it been caused by global warming? And, finally, is the changed relationship between the earth and the sun responsible for climate change?
There are valid questions that demand a considered answer. Thus, let’s look at the following points as a way of answering these questions:
The relationship between the earth and the sun
Nationalgeographic.org states that”it is the earth’s relationship to the sun, and the amount of light it receives, that is responsible for the seasons and biodiversity.”
The tilt of the earth’s axis is responsible for the amount of sun a particular part of the earth receives at any given moment. The distance of the earth from the sun does not make any difference to the earth’s daylight hours.
The earth is also divided into two hemispheres or halves by the equator. The northern hemisphere experiences summer in June, July, and August because it is tilted towards the sun and is exposed to the sun for the majority of the 24-hour period.
Countries on or closest to the equator have circa 12-hours daylight and 12-hours night irrespective of whether they are in the northern or southern hemisphere. And, the further north the countries are, the longer the daylight hours are, and the shorter the night is in the summer months.
The countries north of the Arctic Circle, and within Antarctica, experience a phenomenon known as the Midnight Sun. Essentially, the sun does not set around the Summer Solstice, 21 June in the north and 21 December in the south. Countries south of the equator experience their seasons in juxtaposition to the Northern Hemisphere.
Most countries across the globe, except those on the equator, experience four seasons in a calendar year: spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter. The countries that straddle the equator have what is known as an equatorial climate and they only experience two seasons: a wet and a dry season.
Can the sun cause global warming?
The global climate change website, climate.nasa.gov states that, while the sun can influence the earth’s climate, it is not responsible for the “warming trend we have seen over the past few decades.” Succinctly stated, “the sun is the giver of life.” And, its main function is to keep the earth warm enough human existence.
Minute changes in the earth’s orbit around the sun are responsible for the historical ice ages that have come and gone. However, “the warming we’ve seen over the last few decades is too rapid to be linked to changes in the earth’s orbit.”
Can climate change affect the natural relationship between the sun and the earth?
We know that global warming is fundamentally caused by the increase of greenhouse gasses, which absorbs heat and traps it in the earth’s atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels primarily produces these greenhouse gasses. Thus, the more fossil fuels that are burned the higher the potential for global warming.
As an aside, it is also important to note that about 30% of the sun’s rays that are directed towards the earth are reflected out towards the sun. The remaining 70% is absorbed by the earth’s surface and the atmosphere. This heat is then released back out through the earth’s atmosphere, thereby keeping the earth’s temperature constant and suitable for human habitation.
However, the increase in greenhouse gasses trap the heat that is supposed to released back out through the earth’s atmosphere; thereby, adding to the increase in the earth’s surface temperature.
Climate Change: What, Why, How?
Much has been written about climate change and its impact on the world as we know it. Some of it is on the side of what is commonly termed “fake news,” while other writings are based on reliable, evidence-based scientific facts.
Therefore, the questions that must be asked and answered are as follows:
- What do scientists say about climate change?
- How is climate change changing the world’s weather systems?
- And, what can we do to mitigate or reduce the negative impact of climate change on the world’s ecosystems?
At this juncture, it is vital to note that many studies published in academic peer-review journals indicate that 97% of all climate scientists agree on the definition of climate change as well as the consequences and causes of climate change.
Thus, by way of answering these questions, let’s consider each of these questions individually.
Climate change: A comprehensive definition
The climate.nasa.gov website notes that the phrases “climate change” and “global warming” are used interchangeably. However, there are distinct differences in the meanings.
Global warming is the “long-term heating of Earth’s climate system observed since the pre-industrial period (between 1850 and 1900) due to human activities, primarily fossil fuel burning, which increases heat-trapping greenhouse gas levels in Earth’s atmosphere.”
Climate change, on the other hand, is the “long-term change in the average weather patterns that have come to define Earth’s local, regional and global climates.”
Global warming is one of the fundamental causes of climate change. However, climate change is not responsible for global warming.
What is the impact of climate change on the world’s weather systems?
As the definition mentioned above states, climate change is a shift in the world’s current climate or long-term weather patterns. The uncontrolled burning of fossil fuels is a primary causative of global warming.
2019 statistics show that the earth’s surface temperature was the third warmest in history at 0.65 degrees Celsius. The earth’s surface temperature heated up by 0.86 degrees Celsius in 2016, the highest in recorded history.
This increase in the earth’s surface temperate, albeit seemingly small, has had, and will continue to have, devastating consequences including a rise in global air temperatures, which in turn causes severe weather events like heatwaves, droughts, hurricanes, tornados, and tropical storms.
A current example of the rising temperatures is the melting of the sea ice in Nome, Alaska. Dog teams racing in the Iditarod, one of the world’s premier long-distance races, have been stranded for a couple of days about 123 miles from the finish line. This is due to the unseasonably warm weather, heavy snow, and the fact that heavy winds blew waves up onto the sea ice, causing the dangerous overflow. Overflow is where water flows over the frozen ice causing it to crack and melt. When people and animals try and move through the overflow, the underlying ice breaks further, resulting in hazardous conditions.
As an aside, three mushers and dog teams were rescued by the Alaskan National Guard because they ran into deep water on the sea ice just 22 miles from the finish line. The mushers were hypothermic and had crawled into their sleeping bags when they were picked up. The dogs were all healthy and were collected and taken separately to Nome, the town where the finish line is.
What can we do to reduce global warming?
This question has been asked and continues to be asked, and the concise answer is that we need to reduce greenhouse gas levels by preventing the burning of fossil fuels. However, there seems to be a lack of political will by some of the world’s biggest countries, such as the USA and China.
Until the world chooses to pay attention to and work hard at, the reduction of greenhouse gasses, we seem to be set on the current trajectory facing the consequences of rising temperatures and severe weather events that are linked to global warming.
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