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Environmental Science

4 Ways Environment and Development Sectors can Successfully Collaborate to Meet the Sustainable Development Goals



Sustainable Development Goals
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Also known as the Global Goals, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a universal call to action to protect the planet (ecology and environment), end poverty, and ensure that everyone enjoys peace and prosperity. SDGs is a set of 17 goals created based on the success of the Millennium Development Goals. It also includes new areas such as economic inequality, climate change, innovation, peace, sustainable consumption, justice, and other priorities. These objectives are interconnected, and the key to success on one objective will involve tackling other issues associated with another objective.

Traditionally, the development and environment sectors have always worked separately. However, in the era of SDGs and the Paris Agreement regarding climate change call for a different approach. In ratifying the so-called Paris Agreement, nations have pledged to minimize the increase in the average global temperature to lower than 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial level.

On the other hand, the protection of the environment has been widely captured in the Sustainable Development Goals. Thus, countries can commit to creating sustainable urban communities, promote responsible consumption, and take climate action. All these measures can help fulfill the famous Cop21 Agreement.

Here are some of the ways environment and development sectors can successfully work together to meet the Sustainable Development Goals.

1. Environment and development should be viewed as a single sector

Sectoral thinking is partly the issue hindering human beings from meeting the SDGs. The critical question isn’t how these two sectors can work together, but how they can be increasingly intertwined to reflect the nature goals. An excellent illustration is transforming from marine governance to the ecosystem and environment governance that took place in some nations when environment and fisheries ministries were reformed.

2. Continuous monitoring of industrial development

Just like the traditional tool used in assessing environmental impact, there is an urgent need for a trustworthy oversight. A mine or factory may be created specially to minimize emissions and other forms of environmental harm. However, unless an expert is there to monitor the emissions regularly, standards might slip.

This special process of safeguarding and attaining the best development result is set out in different documents like the ADBSP – African Development Bank’s Safeguard Policy. It’s essential to ensure that such policies are implemented during construction and after construction. Unfortunately, when these superior projects are operational, development experts have no influence. This is where environmental Non-Governmental Organizations should come in.

3. Develop trust

For centuries, most people have believed that the environmental and development sectors compete, particularly with the notion that you must sacrifice the quality of the environment to achieve a higher level of development. Besides, there has been some level of skepticism from experts within these two sectors about the plans or approaches of others.

For instance, economists have often been locked out in the circles, and there has always been mistrust when it comes to different issues that are so critical to the environment and development. What if experts in these sectors could develop trust, work together, and appreciate Mother Nature by not working against each other? Would it not be easy for us to meet the Sustainable Development Goals?

3. Make SDGs a checklist

Nearly everyone knows that a holistic approach is needed to achieve these goals. So, industrial projects such as mining and dam construction could use the Sustainable Development Goals as a design checklist to make sure their mining or construction activities don’t cause adverse effects elsewhere. That means we will be using a unique One Planet Living framework which could also work for the Sustainable Development Goals.

4. Financial incentives

Currently, there are about 20 million artisanal and small-scale mining establishment globally. Though they are responsible for approximately 10th of gold production, they do significant damage to the environment. These mines also account for the biggest use of mercury that ends up poisoning the drinking water supplies and land.

Mining activity is hard to control because most miners are widespread and some of them operate illegally in remote areas. What if governments could offer financial incentives to these miners to minimize the impact of their activities on the environment? For instance, GEF council has already approved a unique programme that will formulate and deploy unique ways in which miners in 8 nations can access loans to switch from the use of mercury.

The bottom line is, the earth is our home. Ecology and environment are a crucial part of our home, and so is the development sector. Environmental experts and development professionals must find a way to work together. This is the only way we can meet the Sustainable Development Goals.

Environmental Science

Dinosaur Fossil: Stages of Formation



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Throughout periods of human history, men have unearthed fossils and wondered how they have been formed. In old times, fossils even inspired legends about strange creatures and monsters. 2000 years from now, Chang Qu, a Chinese writer, mentioned the discovery of rare “dragon bones”, probably fossil of a dinosaur. Fossils are impressive because of their delicate beauty as well as bizarre forms.

How are fossils formed?

Formation of fossil takes place in various ways, but most fossils form when an animal or plant dies and is buried in silt and mud. Soft tissues are the ones that decompose fast, leaving behind shells or hard bones. Years after years, sediments pile up on top, hardening it like a rock. During stages of erosion, the beautiful secrets hidden inside stones reveal themselves.

In simple words, the word fossil indicates traces of the existence of past life. So, a fossil can be either plant remains or animal remains like bones, teeth, shells, etc. Fossil records also include activities of organisms like burrows, feces, and footprints.

Five ways in which fossil formation takes place:

Let us learn in detail about the five primary processes of fossil formation:

  1. Permineralization

Of all the methods of formation of fossils, permineralization is the most common. Once a shell, wood fragment, or bone is buried and covered in sediments, the movement of water (rich in minerals) takes place through the layers of the sediment. This water fills up the empty spaces leaving mineral deposits, thus producing a fossil. Multiple marine fossils, petrified wood and dinosaur bones fossils have formed by the process of permineralization.

  • Natural casts and molds

When water flowing at a great speed removes most of the original tissue or bone of a dead organism, an empty space is created. This depression is known as a mold. Later, other sediments fill that space forming a matching cast inside the mold which is similar in shape and size to the original part or organism. This is how natural casts are formed. Biologists have found many mollusks as casts as their shells wear out easily.

  • Compression

Some fossils take shape when high pressure compresses the remains, leaving a dark imprint behind. Compressed fossils are mostly ferns and leaves.

  • Amber preserved

This type of fossilization is also known as unaltered preservation. When plant parts or insects get trapped in a hardened category of tree sap (amber), the organism turns into a fossil over time.

  • Preserved remains

Preservation of the original material is the most common method. For instance, once a hunter’s body was frozen inside a glacier, giving scientists the scope to examine the hair, skin, and internal organs. This type of fossils helps scientists collect DNA from the remains and match the DNA sequences with their modern counterparts.

The interesting story behind creation of dinosaur fossil:-

William Ferguson, the renowned geologist, discovered the first dinosaur fossil at Cape Paterson in 1903. In order to preserve dinosaur fossils, remains of dead dinosaur must be buried under the ground before being devoured by scavengers or getting decomposed completely.

What are the four significant phases of fossilization?

  • Stage 1: A demised dinosaur needs to get buried before the body’s remains are destroyed completely.
  • Stage 2: Over years, layers after layers of sediments keep accumulating and they exert pressure on the buried remains.
  • Stage 3: Dissolved minerals, carried by ground-waters, fill in the vacant spaces between bones. Chemical reactions, time, and prolonged pressure together transform the sediments into solid rock whereas the bones become mineralized fossils.
  • Stage 4: The fossil stays hidden inside the rock until excavation or erosion uncovers it.
How are fossils discovered and excavated?

Chance plays a key role in this discovery of fossils. Some common instances are:

  • Miners digging for minerals
  • Chance discovery during road cuttings

So, finding fossils requires hard work, luck, and knowledge of possible places where one can find them. Fossils mainly come out from sedimentary rocks which are then removed in blocks and taken to the laboratory.


Fossils are extremely valuable as they give us information about the history of the Earth and the life forms inhabiting the world centuries ago. They also give clues regarding past geological events and climatic conditions. By know

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Environmental Science

Environmental Education For Students Pledge For Better Tomorrow, This Earth Day 2020



Image refer to the student who need environment education
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The struggle for survival is not a new concept. It was there when the early man started to build tools for hunting with stones in Palaeolithic age and the struggle is still on when we are trying to save our existence due to the diminishing health of our natural environment. The research is flooded with some significant and disturbing facts. As per the United Nations (UN), the world population is projected to reach 9.8 billion in 2050. There will be an increase in demand, twice as many resources as the planet can supply. The people would require more understanding and creative problem-solving skills to meet the needs at multiple levels – ecological, cultural, spiritual, and economical. In this respect, environmental education is promoted as a gizmo to provide knowledge, skills, and motivation to the learners about the complex environmental challenges.

As Nelson Mandela said: “Education is the most powerful weapon you can use to change the world”.Marching with his words, environmental education or EE is being added as a major curriculum subject for the students of the middle and secondary level. In fact, the concepts of saving Earth and resources are introduced to little kids at the primary education level in the form of activities such as planting trees, saving water, sorting trash.

India’s take on the importance of environmental education

Introducing environmental education during the early academic years is a great step towards building a responsible future generation. EE equips the population with the knowledge, attitude, commitment, and skills to understand the current environmental challenges. It is proving to be a successful approach to attain sustainable development goals by encouraging students to conserve and protect the natural environment in their schools, neighbourhoods, city, and country at large.

In India, the implementation of environmental education in the formal school curriculum is guided by two national policy documents:

A learned man once said facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored. This holds true for the present condition of our environment where glaciers are melting at rapid speed, marine life is endangered, water resources are getting scarce, the air is getting unconsumablefor humans and animals alike. EE aids understanding of how to reverse the process of environmental decline. There are more offerings as well.

  • There is an enhancement in creative and critical thinking.
  • Students acquire skills that can be applied to real-world problems.
  • The learning prompts thinking to come up with actions that can boost the environment.
  • It teaches interconnection between ecological, political, cultural, and economic aspects, concerning the natural environment.
  • It induces a healthier lifestyle and makes the world a better place to live.
  • It helps the community at large to fight nature deficit disorders.
  • And above all, the education helps in strengthening our bond as a community

In India, environmental education is included in the curriculum with the following structure:

ClassesMode of Transaction
I and IIThrough Activities
III to VEnvironmental Studies (EVS)
VI to XInfusion Model
XI to XIIProject-based Study
NCERT Approach for Environmental Education

This learning continues at some graduate and post-graduate professional courses too, such as BBA, BCA. Alongside, various diploma courses in environmental studies have been designed by environmental experts and are offered by prestigious universities.

Students’ role in attaining the wisdom towards the environment

The main focus of environmental education is to enable the students to analyze, evaluate, and draw inferences about problems and concerns related to the environment. And with their acumen, they should be ready to contribute to their current understanding of environmental issues and come up with positive solutions in response to those. At the moment, this is the only expectation.

The students are advised to learn about the environment, through the environment, and for the environment. The major part of our Indian culture supports the principle of reuse, reduce, and recycle. This is in harmony with our mother Earth. The youth is looked upon to carry forward this tradition for the sake of the environment and focus on the educational curriculum to have an in-depth understanding of what is wrong with our world.

There are few expectations from the students:

  • Be more responsible when you come upfront to face environmental issues.
  • Take part in the initiatives offered at schools, colleges, or country level.
  • Have a role model for yourself and be a one for others.
  • Empower themselves with skills to conserve the environment.

The role of mentors and associated governing bodies is crucial too.

  • Easy implementation of concepts

The teachers must be adequately trained to lower the gap between theoretical learning and practical implementation.

  • Enhanced teacher competencies

Provide a solid learning platform with the availability of staff that can provide an in-depth understanding of the different environmental education subjects and topics.

  • Structure of the curriculum

Evaluate and sequence the academic curriculum with the required components of environmental studies. Make timely and relevant changes based on the modern developments and problems.

  • Comprehensive evaluation

Adhere to variables that dictate the learning and knowledge curve of the students. Evaluate and provide them opportunities to overcome the deficiency in their implementation approach.

We as humans have the instinct to protect our home. But presently, we are the major culprits in destroying our common homeland – The Earth.

For Earth Day’s 50th anniversary on 22nd April 2020, take part in 2020. Global Teach-In, an Earth Day network initiative for connecting with more than 500 million students and community members worldwide. Be a part of the change and show that you care.

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Environmental Science

Environmental Education for Students



Image Indicate Environmental Education for all
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In a nutshell, environmental education is a process that is designed to create awareness and understanding of environmental problems that result in individual and group actions. When done correctly, environmental studies promote critical thinking, effective decision-making, and problem-solving skills. The education uses processes that involve learners measuring, observing, experimenting, classifying, and other data collection techniques. These processes help them in inferring, discussing, interpreting, and predicting information about environmental concerns.

This article will look at environmental education for students, as well as its importance. But before we do that, let’s have a look at some problems arising from the distraction of Mother Nature.

Effects of environmental degradation and destruction

The environment is currently facing lots of challenges. Issues like acid rain, global warming, urban sprawl, air pollution, water pollution, depletion of the ozone layer, waste disposal, climate change seem to worsen by the day. It would have been better if all these happened naturally (albeit, it is still a bad thing) – but that is not the case. These problems are a result of animal and human activities—the same humans who end up taking the hit.

Over the past few years, the exploitation of the earth and degradation of the surrounding has skyrocketed at an alarming speed. Since human actions are consistently not in favor of saving the planet, natural disasters have been cropping up each day, causing more havoc than we could even imagine. A good example is the Amazon Rain Forest fires that happened in 2019. These fires consumed thousands of hectares of forest land; a forest that plays a critical role in the production of oxygen; one that is home of hundreds of animals and plant species – burning down at a record rate. 

And that is not the only case. In 2019, China experienced a deadly typhoon, Lekima, that claimed 72 lives. The tropical storm swept through numerous provinces leading to severe floods and incredible damage to bridges and roads. In the same year, Typhoon Hag ibis claimed not less than 86 people in Japan. Not to forget the heat wave in India that killed 90 people in the summer of 2019. And these are just a few examples – the list goes on and on.

What is disturbing is that human beings seem not concerned with all these. It is business as usual. Different organizations and groups have cropped up trying to effect change, but nothing substantial has come out of it. It seems as though this generation is hardwired to a certain way of life. But all hope is not lost. The good thing is that there is an upcoming generation that can make a difference. These are our kids at school – whether it is pre-school, grade school, senior school, or college. These are tomorrow’s leaders. And with the right environmental education for students, they can be the change that we want to see. 

Teaching the students and the masses

Environmental education is perhaps the best weapon that we can use to minimize and eventually cut out human actions that contribute to environmental issues. Different individuals, groups, and environments across the globe are playing their part in educating the masses about environmental care. They are informing people on how their small actions can add up for a greater good.

Educators, too, are teaching their students about the environment in a bid to turn them into responsible adults. When students study environmental science, it becomes part of their lives. This makes it easy for them to respect nature. Additionally, ecological education teaches learners about how to protect and ensure the safety of things around them.

When done right, our children will grow up knowing that tropical forests play a significant role in preventing climate change and that burning them will increase global warming and other resulting consequences. Again, they will understand that reversing the burning of fossil fuel and loss of natural habitat are the only ways to reduce climate warming.

And while technology is trying to curb a range of issues – like replace fossil fuel and even reduce greenhouse gases, it is still less likely to attain what is required in the short time available. Besides, technology will not be effective if the destruction of savannah and tropical forests becomes widespread. 

With students being motivated to bring about change, many are looking into ways to help save the environment. In fact, some are coming up with creative renewable energy solutions to reduce over-reliance on fossil fuels. Other green innovations include drinkable seawater, illuminating water, solar panels, plastic from banana peels, eco-bags, and so on. All these innovations come about when students are motivated enough to want to effect change.

A few things to note about environmental education

It is important to note that environmental education and environmental information are two very different things. The latter involves offering facts about specific environmental problems or concerns. This can be achieved through informational brochures, press releases, videos, bulletins, and other media channels. It is also directed towards the general public rather than a specific audience or group. In most cases, environmental information is just effective among those who are motivated and concerned about particular issues or topics.

Quality environmental education focuses on the educational process. It is science-based and not biased. Educators can be advocates, but when they take on teaching students, they should not be inclined toward a specific direction. By this, we mean, they should be neutral and not allow their personal beliefs to inform their teachings.

Parting shot

By 2030, the global population will need twice as many resources as Mother Nature can supply. This is according to The Economist. Meeting the cultural, economic, spiritual, and ecological needs of global citizenry calls for understanding and creative problem-solving abilities.  Environmental education arms students with the motivation, skills, and knowledge to handle sophisticated environmental concerns in the 21st century.

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