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Some Revealing Facts about the Honey Bee

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Honeybees are greatly sophisticated insects that have developed for millions of years. The first documented Bee was in Myanmar. History has it that it had an encasing of amber and states the time to be 100 million years ago. There is a possibility of the Far East being the origin of the bee. That was a time when bees had the nature of wasps and ate insects and not nectar and pollen.

There is no evidence of the time that the bees turned vegetarian. Nonetheless, it looks like an excellent decision.

The species of bees that exist

Presently, bees reside across the world and there’re roughly 20,000 species. These cover the gamut from the giant leaf consuming bee with a length of over 3cm to the minute dwarf bee with a length of just 2mm. The honeybee is among these species.

A good number of other bees have a more private existence compared to colonies. A good example is the Bumblebee.

Bees help in the pollination of flowering plants

Bees are not just helpful in the pollination of crop and scientists consider bees to be responsible for nature’s rich flower variety.

A good number of flowering plants are unable to self-pollinate. Pollination via wind for carrying their seed isn’t all that efficient. This is the reason for the evolving of flowers with upbeat colors and markings for drawing bees. The honey bee presents its pollination service and gets wholesome nectar.

The bee has the nectar and carries it in a unique stomach backside to its hive for

  • Sharing with the Queen
  • Feeding the bees in that hive and feeding the larvae

The discovery of honey

For the primeval man, the discovery of honey was life-altering. Primeval hunter-gatherers did not have the beesuit& veil. Thus, amassing honey was no less painful as holding a burning stick. Nonetheless, the gallantry did not in vain as it looks as though people already had a sweet tooth.

The development of the earliest to the modern beehive

The first beehive was the creation of Egyptians. The design was humble in an averted straw basket named “skep.” People use it even today though mostly as temporary housing for a group of bees.

This beehive wasn’t meant forlong-standing use as one could not extract the honey without abolishing the hive and the colony. This system was functional for a colony of sufficient bees that made a swarm. People would then catch the swarm and it would deliver the honey in the year after. It was important to find a way of preserving the same colony for several years for

  • Ensuring the production of more honey
  • Ensuring the expansion of the beehive

Lorenzo Langstroth made the pioneering finding in beekeeping. He found that bees preserved a clear pathway of the size of a bee within hives with a width of between 6 and 8mm. This discovery initiated the building of hives that had portable frames of comb.

With this invention, a beekeeper could take out comb and honey while not terminating the hive. The bookkeeper was also free to manipulate the colony for helping it grow. People mark this finding to be the start of contemporary beekeeping.

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Climate Movement and Brighters Society

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Brighters Society
Image Credit : Birghters Society
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Climate movement or climate strike is comparatively newer in our subcontinent. Although we are the worst sufferers of the conscience, our worries are seemingly raised later than others. However, if we take a look at the very prominent organizations that are working for the climate in this subcontinent, the Brighters Society of Bangladesh will be on the top ten list! They are working on climate justice, tree plantation, and saving natural resources for the past couple of years and have been able to draw attention across the country about why we should act as if ‘our house is on fire’ when it is the case of a climate emergency! 

What is Brighters Society? 

Brighters Society is a non-profitable and non-political organization that is concerned about social & environmental problems and youth leadership. This organization was founded in 2016, by Saidur Rahman, with a bunch of dreamers, and the story is quite interesting! 

Challenging the system of the school teaching system, 4-5 boys started studying their own by making a group. This gradually extended to 10-12 boys and this was the seed of the first-ever team of this organization. These boys created a club named “Diganta Honest Boys’ Club” to perform some social activism. Afterward, it was named “Brighters Society of Bangladesh” with more dreams and dimensions. 

In its founding year, it spread its works in the district of Noakhali. The next year, the community extended to three more teams in Chittagong, Dhaka, and Jessore. Afterward, in its third year, it winged over more than 10 district teams and 40 green teams. Now it possesses almost more than 15 district teams and 45 green teams. 

From 2019. It started to work on the climate emergency. Gradually it was expanded over 64 districts of Bangladesh and still now it is the most active climate-based organization. Regular climate strikes, tree plantation programs, submitting MoUs to the authority to ban harmful plants, organizing seminars for climate education, arranging tree plantation programs are some of the key roles of them in the field of climate emergency. In earlier 2020, they launched a project to plant 100k seedlings to fight the climate emergency situation with natural resources. 

Visions & Missions of Brighters Society

Brighters Society of Bangladesh

Brighters Society of Bangladesh works on its five functions to perform all its activities of socialism and those are 

  • Intellectual Excellency
  • Leadership Development
  • Community Service 
  • AwarenessProgram 
  • Capacity Building and Skill Development 

Goal: To make a healthy, poverty free and conscious educated society. 

From its beginning, it was designed to make a well-planned society where the system would not crash like the present situation like now. For this, it started to work from the roots. Let’s check out the root level projects initiated by Brighters Society. 

  1. Intellectual Excellency

-Project “We For Ten”

-School “Lighthouse”

  1. Awareness 

-Green Movement 

-Project “Todays For Tomorrow” 

-Project “Protest For Her” 

-Project “Revive The Roads” 

-Project “Enlighten The Addicts”

-Project “Homage To Flag” 

  1. Leadership Development
    -Workshop and volunteer Orientation 
  2. Capacity Building and Skill Development 

-Project “Support to Self-reliance” 

  1. Community Service 

– Project “Warm Cloth Distribution” 

-Project “Survival In Water” 

Why Brighters Joined the Climate Movement? 

Brighters Society of Bangladesh 1

The research team and the intellectual excellency unit was working for a better plan to create a better environment for nature and people. But there was always a hindrance. But youths are the solution to every problem always! In 2018, Brighters started to work on tree plantation from its branches, such as Jashore, Noakhali, Tangail. Later on, 2019 is the year when they started to work as a national organization.  In May 2019, Brighters started its journey to collaborate officially with “Fridays For Future International”, one of the leading organizations in the field of climate justice. In that month, Brighters Society arranged a national strike collaborating with 15 cities and organizations representing Bangladesh in the 2nd global strike. 

Next, in September, the UN decided to observe “The Climate Action Week” from 20th September to 27th September.  Brighters Society played a vital role that time to organize strikers from periphery of Bangladesh and arranged two big strikes on 20th September and 27th September. It observed the week on spreading climate consciousness by organizing various programs, events and so on. They united 40 districts on the period to strike for the climate emergency. 

Next milestone was touched on November 2019, when the fourth global strike happened over the world. Bangladesh participated in the strike with all its 64 districts led by Brighters Society. Thus, Bangladesh joined the procession of climate justice demand groups as a top tire! 

Climate Justice Right Now in Bangladesh 

As the demand started to grow day by day, Brighters decided to start a climate movement in Bangladesh called “Green Movement”. Green movement includes- 

  • Green Team 
  • Green Campus Ambassador 
  • Green Alliance 
  • Project “Todays For Tomorrow” 

“Todays For Tomorrow” includes 

  • Climatehood [Climate Education] 
  • Best Air Pollution 
  • Replacing Plastic 
  • Tree Plantation 

Brighters Society started an initiative to plant 100k seedlings to be planted by 2020. The first phase of this started in February 2020, with a purpose to plant more than 10k seedlings. It was made very specific by- 

  • Distributing 10k seedlings management into 15 districts
  • Making 5 cities ‘Green City’ 
  • Keeping database of each and every seedlings on google map
  • Collaborating with other social organizations. 

But after the corona pandemic started, the situation and lockdown forced to stop all the fieldwork. Hope the Mission will come back stronger after the earth gets cured. 

Pandemic & Climate Activities of Brighters 

The COVID-19 pandemic hit the world and stopped all the physical workplaces. But voluntary works are such a kind of activity that can not be slowed in any situation. Apart from the organizational works, Brighters kept participating in digital strikes and international seminars to keep pace with the environmental crisis during the period. Over the months, all the branches took part in the digital strike and showed their potential to work further. Regular conferences with the spokespersons make it a more reliable and sustainable working place for climate justice in Bangladesh. 

Further, Brighters Society dreams to make Bangladesh a climate-friendly country with zero carbon emission and crores of green trees around it.  Also, it wants to form an alliance with the climate concerned citizens and organizations of the world that will make the earth a better place to live in. 

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Constitutional Provisions in India to protect the environment

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Constitutional Provisions in India
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An increase in deforestation, global warming, water, air, and other types of pollution have emerged as the biggest threat to living beings and the environment. Environmental degradation due to a wide range of natural and manmade activities has adverse effects on the wellbeing of plants, animals, and human beings. So, protecting the various ecosystems has to be of supreme importance to maintain the harmonious existence of all life forms on earth.

Laws are necessary to monitor human conduct in all matters. Since the Indian Constitution did not have the term ‘Environment’ mentioned in it, it became mandatory to insert provisions to safeguard the environment. The Indian Constitution, which is the supreme law book of the country, has several laws against environmental exploitation.

Laws and Policy in ancient India

In ancient India, cleaning up and protection of the environment was a central part of the Vedic Culture. The interest in the environment’s conservation was apparent in art, religion, myth folklore, and culture. In Hindu theology, preservation of trees, wildlife, and forests held an
important place.

The Preamble and environment protection

Massive levels of pollution are degrading the environment’s quality each day. Socialism is the main aim of the Preamble. It bestows upon the state the responsibility to take stern measures to minimize land, water, and air pollution. The state is also obliged to provide a pollution-free environment and decent living standards for all living things.

Legislative powers to preserve the environment

There are multiple developmental projects that the state takes up and many of them have negative impacts on the environment. In such situations, one has to choose between environmental protection and development. The Environment Impact Assessment abbreviated as EIA, deal with such matters. The Planning Commission has also recognized it.

International Environmental Agreements

India has signed multiple international agreements regarding environmental preservation on various occasions. The Stockholm Declaration of 1972 established the point that the world has one environment, and all big nations should join hands for the sake of its maintenance. As India is a signatory, it is obliged to follow the provisions.

The Constitution of India clearly states in Article 51C that India shall abide by and respect global laws after signing treaties. The Constitution’s Article 253 is another significant provision pertaining to the environment. It gives Parliament the power to introduce laws that will be followed by the whole nation or specific states for implementing signed conventions and agreements with other countries.

Using this power the Parliament has successfully enacted the Air Prevention and Control of Pollution Act in 1981 and the Environment Protection Act in 1986.

The constitutional measures:

To improve and protect the environment, constitutional amendments are mandatory. After huge protests by environmentalists, the decision was taken for the modification of the Constitution. The 42 nd Amendment is the outcome of that decision. In the chapter titled ‘Directive Principles of the State Policy and Fundamental Duties’, The Indian Constitutions lists direct provisions for the protection of the environment:

>The Indian Constitution’s 42 nd Amendment took place in the year 1976. Inclusion of 2.2 Article 48A took place which declares that the state will take actions to safeguard and better the environment and also preserve the wildlife and forest cover of the country.

>Every citizen of India got a similar responsibility in the form of a ‘Fundamental Duty’ as per 2.3 Article 51(A) (g). It entails that it is the duty of every individual to take care of the natural environment, that is, rivers, wildlife, lakes, and forests, and to treat all living creatures with compassion

The amendments also mentioned some other changes in the Constitution’s Seventh Schedule. ‘Wildlife’ and ‘Forest’ were transferred to the Concurrent List from the State list.

Role performed by the Supreme Court:

The Supreme Court has dealt with a long list of cases regarding environmental pollution and protection. It has passed various significant judgments over the years. The Supreme Court has also highlighted diverse aspects of our environment such as natural resources by giving them
the required importance. Water and air have received the status of nature’s greatest gifts to mankind as we cannot survive without them.

Article 21’s Polluter Pays Rule:

While incorporating the Fundamental Rights’ basic features described in Article 21, the Supreme Court has ascertained several principles to defend the atmosphere. The Principle of Polluter Pays proclaims that if someone causes ecological damage, it becomes that person or organization’s duty to repair the damage done. So, when industries who fail to obey the directions given by the court, the court shuts them down.

The Doctrine of Public Trust:

In this doctrine, it is asserted that water and air are life’s basic amenities. Therefore, claiming private ownership to these resources can never be justified.

Environmental Laws followed in India:

  1. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1974– This Act bans the discharge of harmful pollutants into rivers and other water bodies and lays down strict penalties for breakers of the law. This resulted in the formation of the CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) to control pollution of water. Section 16 explains the functions
    of the board.
  2. The 1981 Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution Act)– Article 253’s Air Act mainly deals with the control and abatement of air pollution.

Read more : International Law And Pollution: A Brief Discussion.

Other useful laws:

 The Environment Protection Act of 1986
 Handling and Management of Hazardous Waste objective of 1989
 The Public Liability Insurance Act of 1991
 The Municipal Solid Wastes (Handling and Management) Rules of 2000
 Control and Regulation of Noise Pollution (2002)
 The 1984 Indian Forest Act and Amendment
 The Factories Act of1948

Conclusion:

It is crucial to have a healthy environment, not just for the sake of human beings but for the sake of the environment which has been there long before humans inhabited the planet. So, as the smartest of all animals on earth, it is the duty of human beings to be sensible about the environment. Laws are not enough to lessen pollution and protect the environment. All of us need to make environment-friendly lifestyle alterations and wok united towards stopping ecological degradation.

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International Day of Clean Air 2020

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International Day of Clean Air 2020
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During the 74th session of the United Nations, on December 19, 2019, the assembly adopted the resolution to hold the International Day of Clean Air 2020 for blue skies. The assembly invited the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) to facilitate this observance, in collaboration with various
other organizations
. Together, organizations resolved to emphasize on the importance of raising public awareness across all levels and urgently promote as well as facilitate necessary actions to improve the quality of air.

On September 7, 2020, the International Day of Clean Air for blue skies shall be observed. This celebration shall set an example for a very important and exhilarating innovative international day for cleaner air and blue skies. Organizations including UN organizations, UN member states, international and regional organizations, and civil society can observe this day.


The UN Member States have recognized that it is vital to reduce the number of illnesses and deaths from hazardous chemicals, air, soil, and water pollution, and contamination, substantially, by 2030. International Day of Clean Air 2020 is the beginning.


The International Clean Air Day 2020 Mission Addresses 2 Problems

International Day of Clean Air 2020 is a mission that addresses two primary problems:
i) Impact On Health: When tiny and invisible particles of pollutants penetrate the body, affecting the bloodstream and the lungs, it can cause serious illnesses. These pollutants are primarily responsible for approximately one-third of the total number of deaths from
chronic respiratory diseases, stroke, and lung cancer.

Besides, it is responsible for a quarter of the total number of deaths from a heart attack. When different types of pollutants interact in sunlight, it produces ground-level ozone, which causes chronic respiratory illnesses and asthma. At the International Day of Clean Air 2020, these issues would be the key areas.

ii) Impact on Climate: Some pollutants affect the health and warming of our planet. These care called short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). They are persistent in the earth’s atmosphere for no more than a few days or may live up to several decades. Reducing them from the earth’s atmosphere can have an immediate benefit for the climate and health for people living in those places where the levels decrease significantly. The International Day of Clean Air 2020 addresses this.

Reducing Air Pollution & Prevention To Improve Quality Of Air Globally

One of the biggest environmental risks to humanity is air pollution. It is also one of the key avoidable causes of disease and death globally, with an estimated 6.5 million premature deaths in 2016 all over the world, attributed to both outdoor and indoor pollution. In developing nations, air pollution affects women and children, and the elderly, disproportionately, particularly in low-income populations. Considering that they are exposed to higher levels of indoor and ambient pollution from cooking and heating using kerosene and wood fuel, risks are higher.

Air pollution is recognized as a global problem having a far-reaching impact due to its transport. Without aggressive intervention, the total number of premature deaths due to ambient air pollution could increase by over 50 percent by the beginning of 2050. To prevent it, the International Day of Clean Air 2020 shall be decisive.

The Crux

It is important to have clean air, free from pollutants and contaminants, for healthy day-to-day living. The International Day of Clean Air 2020 recognizes this single greatest risk factor to human health and acknowledges that improving the quality of air can increase climate change mitigation, which can further, improve the quality of air.

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