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Ecology

The Butterfly belongs to Lepidoptera Order

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We all know that a butterfly is gorgeous, flying insect that has big scaly wings. Butterflies, like all insects, have three body parts, six jointed legs, compound eyes, a duo of antennae, and the exoskeleton. Their three body parts comprise of the head, thorax, and abdomen.

Their body has miniscule sensory hairs. Their four wings and six legs are joined to the thorax. The muscles of the thorax make the movement of the legs and wings possible.

Butterflies as fliers

Butterflies are excellent fliers. Their two duos of big wings that have colorful, lustrous scales in rows that overlap. Lepidoptera is the single order of insects with scaly wings. The veins support the subtle wings and with blood for nourishment.

Butterflies cannot fly when they have a body temperature of below 86 degrees. Butterflies stay under the sun for warming themselves up when the weather is cold. With age, their wings fade in color and turn ragged.The velocity at which they fly differs with butterfly species. The butterflies that fly the fastest have a speed of 30 miles/ hour or even faster. The butterflies that fly slowly have a velocity of approximately five mph.

The Lifecycle of a Butterfly

Butterflies undergo a total metamorphosis that includes four stages. These stages are as follows:

  • Egg – Butterflies start their lives as eggs, usually laid on leaves.
  • Larva – The larvae hatch from eggs and eat flowers or leaves nearly continuously. The caterpillars shed their old skin numerous times as they grow. The caterpillars will grow in size by several thousand ahead of pupating.
  • Pupa – The caterpillars turn into a pupa, which is an inactive stage.
  • Adult – Gorgeous, flying adults emerge, and they carry on the cycle.

Some facts about their diet

While the first meal of caterpillars is their egg shells what they eat is dependent on the species. Some caterpillars eat meat, an example being the harvester species.

Butterflies cannot have anything other than liquid food. They do so with a proboscis that resembles a tube and is a long, supple “tongue.” The proboscis uncurls for sipping food, and curls once more into a spiral. A good number of butterflies survive by having nectar from flowers. Certain butterflies drink the liquid from putrid fruits and a select few fancy putrid animal flesh or fluids.

Their habitat and migration

Butterflies exist all over the earth and in all sorts of settings that include hot and cool, dry and damp, at and high above sea level in the mountains. However, the habitat of the most species is in the tropical regions, particularly tropical rainforests.

Numerous butterflies travel for avoiding unfavorable ecological conditions.  However, butterfly migration is a subject that remains mostly unknown. While a good many species migrate short distances some travel thousands of miles.

Butterflies are a part of the Lepidoptera order. The scaled wings of butterflies are unlike the wings of other insects. The estimated number of species of butterflies that exist across the Earth is 28,000.

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Ecology

Ecological Imbalance: Major Causes Behind It

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The stability of the earth’s ecosystem depends on the balance between the consumption and production of every single element in the ecosystem. Ecological imbalance or instability is a state in which an ecosystem fails to adjust to the changes in the environment. This type of situation arises when the changes are enormous and they exceed the capacity or resilience of the ecosystem.

Causative agents for ecological imbalance:

The major factor responsible for an imbalance in the existing ecosystem of the earth is the dominance of human beings in the global ecosystem. Man’s selfish and thoughtless ways to exploit the resources of the planet for satisfying his greed is the root cause of this diversion. Here are the main causes of imbalance in the ecosystem:

Changing Hydrology

When rainwater is utilized for irrigation, water flows as a slow pace in the river and water quality downstream also declines. Construction of large reservoirs for power generation and irrigation also alter the ecosystem of the place. Irrigation also increases the contents of water vapor in the locality.

Use of Pesticides

When we apply pesticides on plants to protect them from plants, pesticides do not just contaminate the plant but also pollute surface and ground waters. So, the use of pesticides has adverse effects on the environment, creating ecological imbalance.

Green House Effect

Increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere is a big concern for environmentalists. The direct negative effect of this is the increased temperature of the earth’s surface, commonly known as ‘global warming’. If we do not take stern measures to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide, the consequences will be disastrous. There will be a drastic change in the climate in several places resulting in the melting of polar ice caps and submerging low-lying coastal cities (such as Chennai, London, and New York) under the oceans.

Acid Rain

Acid rain, that is rainwater laden with acids, is the main reason behind air pollution. When we burn fossil fuels, large amounts of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide are released into the air. These oxides, after coming in contact with water vapor, produce nitric acid and sulphuric acid which come back to the surface of the earth when it rains. Acid rain is a great threat to the world’s ecological balance, harming plants and animals.

Overgrazing

Ecosystem instability and environmental degradation that arise from overgrazing are mostly seen in semi-arid and arid regions of Central Asia, the Mediterranean basin and near-Eastern countries. The aftermath of this is desertification.

Deforestation

The clearance of forest cover is again a primary contributory factor in the disturbance of the ecology of our planet. Man has cut down forests to establish croplands, residential areas, and grasslands. In addition to this, forests are also targeted for fuel-wood and timber.

Forest fires

Repeated, natural forest fires that burn thousands of trees overnight cause severe harm to the ecosystem and are responsible for the degradation of the environment.

Industrialization

Industrialization is important to cater to the basic comforts and necessities of life for our increasing population. But, improperly planned and executed industrialization has resulted in acute ecological imbalance and environmental pollution worldwide.

Mining Activities

The process of extracting minerals and processing them has a long-lasting ecological impact on the atmosphere, land, water and also the socio-economic environment of the people living there. One direct outcome of mining on the topography is surface disturbances. Reclamation of uneven, disturbed land due to mining wastes can rectify the environmental damage to a certain extent. Excessive surface mining has resulted in fragile ecosystems in several places.

Urbanization

Rapid urbanization gives birth to several environmental, health, and socio-economic problems. For instance, a slum settlement in towns and cities is clearly an outcome of unplanned urbanization that fails to provide housing facilities to all citizens. People, when unable to find a proper dwelling place, end up occupying any vacant land in the outskirts of a city and start living in a haphazard manner without civic facilities such as drainage, roads, water supply, electricity, and transport. Slum expansion destroys the natural ecosystems that surround the cities.

Conclusion

So, the basic causes of disharmony in the ecosystem and environmental pollution are urbanization, motorization, and industrialization. Human beings are accountable for the degradation of the quality of the environment and we require steady measures to bring back harmony into the ecosystem.

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Ecology

Coral Reefs: Value of Corals

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Coral Reefs, known as the “rainforests of the sea”, are among the most productive and biodiverse ecosystems on our planet. They do not occupy more than one percent of the floor of the ocean, and yet are home to at least a quarter of the entire marine population, including various species of reptiles, bacteria, fungi, crustaceans, and 4000 or more varieties of fish.

Three basic types of coral reefs:

  • Fringing Reef
  • Barrier Reef
  • Atoll Reef

Where can we find coral reefs?

Coral reefs are situated in tropical oceans of the earth that are near the equator. The Great Barrier Reef, located in Australia, is the world’s largest coral reef. The second biggest coral reef is in Central America’s Belize. Reefs are also present in the Red Sea, Hawaii, and other regions in tropical oceans.

How valuable are corals?

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Healthy corals are not just biologically diverse but also economically valuable resources of the earth. Coral ecosystems provide food to millions of organisms (including humans), offer spawning grounds and habitat to fish species, protect coastlines from erosion and storms, and also provide a livelihood to locals from recreation, tourism, and fishing.

Gifts of coral reefs to mankind:

Biodiversity- Coral reefs are important nursery, spawning, feeding and breeding grounds for multiple organisms. Speaking of biodiversity, the rich variety of living organisms residing on a coral reef is actually greater than the diversity of species inhabiting shallow-water ecosystems. Yet corals do not occupy even one percent of the planet’s ocean floor. They support at least 800 coral species and 4000 exotic species of fish.

Fisheries- More than one billion people from all over the world consume fish that live and grow on coral reefs. There are also many species of fish that reside far away from corals but derive food from them. Fifty percent of America’s federally handled fisheries rely on coral reefs and its related habitats to a great extent. The yearly commercial value of fisheries in US that come from coral reefs reaches up to $100 million. Coral reefs fisheries situated in South East Asia also generate $2.4 billion every year.

Coastal protection- Coral reefs that are healthy have complex structures and rough surfaces that dissipate the force of waves. This gives protection to the shorelines from waves, storms, and ocean currents, preventing loss of life, erosion and major damages to property. So, coastlines that receive protection from reefs are stable and they are also a source of rich sand in the beaches.

Medicine- Many species that inhabit coral reefs produce specific chemical compounds necessary for attack or defense, particularly the stationary or slow-moving species such as sponges and nudibranchs. So, creatures that are found in the coral ecosystems are valuable sources of novel medicines being discovered to ease and induce labor, treat arthritis, cancer, ulcers, heart diseases, asthma, bacterial infections, viruses, and several other ailments. Corals are also a source of cosmetics, enzymes and nutritional supplements. In the years to come, more medicines will be developed from coral reefs if we can succeed in protecting and preserving them.

Recreation and tourism- Millions of snorkelers and scuba divers visit the coral reefs every year to enjoy rich sea life. Beaches that are protected by coral reefs are more crowded than the ones that are not. So, local economies earn billions of dollars from these visitors who participate in fishing trips and diving tours as well as facilitate the businesses, restaurants, and hotels located nearby.

Losing Coral Reefs: A Potential Threat

According to a report published by the World Resource Institute, named ‘Reefs at Risk Revisited, 75 percent of the coral reefs of the world are at great risks from global and local stresses. About a quarter of these valuable reefs has been ruined beyond repair. Overfishing along with harmful fishing techniques like usage of cyanide and explosives and deep water trawling are among the most destructive threats to the coral reefs.

Pollution from the land, such as releases from several power plants, trash, oil spills, and pathogens also endanger the existence of corals. Even plastic pollution is responsible for killing corals.  If humans do not take major steps to protect the coral reefs, 90 percent of them will be damaged in the next ten years.

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Ecology

Eco-Friendly Practices to Incorporate Into Your Lifestyle

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Like air, water, and land pollution worsen living conditions for every living being on this planet, we must switch to healthy habits before it’s too late. Here is a list of some eco-friendly practices that will improve the quality of your life as well as prove beneficial for the environment:

Conserve water

Water is one of the most valuable resources without which life on earth would not be possible, we cannot afford to waste water carelessly. There are so many people who do not have access to clean drinking water. Simple changes like turning off the tap while brushing the teeth, taking the shower for bathing instead of a bathtub, and spending less time showering can make a huge difference. If all of us join hands in conserving the resources nature has gifted us, life will be easier for our future generations.

Respect food

As per survey reports, thousands of humans die of hunger every single day. So, wasting food is like stealing it from them who are poor. So, avoid buying excess food and then throwing them away. Also, always serve smaller portions to kids and repurpose leftovers. These clever tricks will also help you save a lot of money every month.

Reduce dependency on your car

With growing concerns regarding air pollution, reliance on private vehicles for the performance of daily activities is not doing any good for the environment. Instead of taking your car out ten times a day, plan in advance and try to complete multiple tasks at one time. Moreover, cycling or taking a walk will also benefit several organs of your body, strengthening your immune system. But, if you have no choice other than driving, the least you can do is add a good fuel catalyst like Green Plus to the vehicle. This will not just better fuel combustion but also enhance fuel efficiency and lessen harmful emissions.

Plant trees

Planting trees is perhaps one of the best eco-friendly practices. We all know that trees provide a natural habitat for wild animals, reduce soil erosion, give us food and shade, bring rain, absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Make planting trees a habit and plant at least 10 trees every year. Witnessing saplings grow into big trees before your eyes will deepen your connection with nature.

Use natural products for home cleaning

Keeping your home clean is a must to make sure that family members remain healthy. But, do you know that most of the cleaning ingredients available in the market contain harmful chemicals. These chemicals do a great job in removing stains, making the floors, sinks or tiles appear as good as new. But, you should not bring home these toxic products. Instead, rely on homemade or natural cleaning ingredients to remove dirt without having to use harmful materials.

Avoid using pesticides on your plants

Home gardening is a great way of utilizing your leisure time along with adding fresh foods to your regular diet. But, if you spray chemicals or pesticides on your plants, you are feeding harmful chemicals to your family members. Instead, use the food wastes to make natural fertilizers for your plants.

Practice recycling

Recycling means transforming waste materials into usable materials again. We should practice more and more recycling of products for the sake of the environment. Recycling decreases our dependence on new raw ingredients and lessens the amount of garbage.

Travel at least once a year- In order to connect with nature

you have to spend quality time in the lap of nature, far from the madding crowd of the big cities. So, you should plan at least one trip every year and spend some quality time with your dear ones in a picturesque hill-station or an exotic beach destination. Also, by traveling we do not mean spending your time in an expensive hotel room and putting on more weight. Instead, go out, swim in the ocean, breathe in the fresh mountain air and discover unknown trails and hidden streams.

Conclusion

Incorporating the above-mentioned eco-friendly practices into your normal routine will help you live a more earth-friendly and much greener life. There is no end to such healthy habits that you can teach your children so that they grow up to be sensitive, eco-friendly human beings.

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