Plastic pollution is actually the accumulation of plastic bottles and polythenes and the particles which are made up of plastics in the environment around us. This accumulation of plastics and its particles are responsible for adversely affecting human beings and wildlife. Based on the size of these plastics which act as the pollutants can be categorized into 3 parts widely known as the micro debris, meso debris, and macro debris. Are you aware of the fact that why human beings produce plastics so much? It is because plastics are durable and are comparatively inexpensive to jute bags. There are few chemical substances in plastics which lead to the slow degradation of the plastic. Thus, the above factors are responsible for plastic pollution in the surrounding.
Plastics pollute every area or parts of this earth like land, oceans or waterways. The report tells that from the coastal areas every year about 1.1 to 9 million metric tons of wastes enter water bodies which constitutes mainly of plastics. Pollution of water bodies with plastic waste leads to death of the marine animals. They are harmed either due to indigestion caused due to the consumption of the plastic waste or maybe due to being affected by the chemicals which are present in the plastics which affects the internal organs. This even affects humans by affecting their hormonal mechanism. Every year 380 million tons of non-disposable plastics are produced according to the report of 2018. During the time period 1950 to 2018 it is estimated that about 6.3 billion tons of plastic production have been caused worldwide. Among these nine percent is recyclable and the other 12% is incinerated. Among all the creatures about 90% of the sea birds are affected by the plastic debris. A large number of areas is trying to control this pollution affecting several people and animals. This can be done by using plastics which are recyclable or substituting the plastic bag with some jute bag for something which is decomposable. It is even assumed that in 2050 there might be several plastics in comparison to fish in oceans.
Types of plastics:
As it is stated earlier that micro plastics including macro plastics and mega plastics are the types of plastics which pollute the environment. The mega plastics and the micro plastics accumulate in the high densities concentrating the northern hemisphere around water and urban centers. Plastics are even found far away from the island coast because of carrying away the debris. Micro plastics and mega plastics both are found in footwear and packaging as wrappers which are even found discarded in the land fields. All the debris are found mostly in the remote islands because those areas concentrate on items related to fishing.
The plastic wastes are categorized into two parts which are the primary and secondary. The plastics which remain in their original form are known as the primary plastics. Examples are cigarette butts and bottle caps. On the other hand, the result that is formed after the degradation of the primary plastics is considered to be the secondary plastics.
About the decomposition of plastics
There are a lot of wastes and different types of waste in the environment which affects mankind and wildlife. But among all these, near about 10% of them constitutes of plastics. There are two factors on which plastic depends. First one is the method of polymerization and the second is their precursors. The degradation capacity and other factors depend on the chemical composition. Near the coast, it takes more time to degrade due to the saline environment and the sea providing a cooling environment.
Effects on the environment:
However, some studies have shown that plastics can decompose faster if they are in the ocean. This is due to their exposure to rain sun and other conditions which helps to release the toxic chemicals and helps to decompose faster. Bisphenol A is one among the toxic chemicals present in plastic. But the decomposition of the plastic has slowed down due to an increased volume in the ocean. It is estimated by the marine conservancy that 50 years will be taken by a plastic cup to decompose and 400 years by plastic bravery is holder to decompose. A nappy will take about 450 years along with a fishing line to degrade.
The environment is affected by a different manner. So it is very important to fight against plastic pollution and save the environment. Due to some factor, the plastic distribution varies in different places due to winds, coastline geography, and ocean currents. Enclosed regions like the Caribbean are mostly covered with plastics. This helps in distributing the organisms to places which are not their initial environment. There are places which are not biologically diverse. Distribution of the organisms might increase potentially the variability.
Plastic pollution is responsible for climatic change
The pollution caused by plastic cell also of factor which affects the climatic change. A new report published in the year 2019 what are termed as “plastic and climate”. This report says that plastics which are not decomposable will lead to the contribution of greenhouse gases which are equivalent to the production of 850 million tonnes of co2 in the atmosphere. By 2050 plastics will be responsible for the emission of greenhouse gases equivalent to 14 % of the carbon budget in the earth. 2100 will be the year in which about half of carbon dioxide will be emitted which constitute to 260 billion tons.
Effects of pollution on the land:
Land comes under threat due to plastic pollution. And human’s animals and plants which reside on land come under the threat of pollution. The pollution inland it’s much more than that caused in the ocean. Chlorinated plastic emits chemicals which are harmful and releases them in the soil. These chemicals may penetrate in the soil and reach the underground water which comes through the tube -well as the purest form of water. Now when the water is taken in by animals and human beings they suffer from diseases and health issues. Thus it is one of the most important things to fight against plastic pollution and make this earth a happier and safer place to live in.