Climate change is an increasing issue, which the entire humanity is facing as a byproduct of the developed world we inhabit. It is one of the gravest circumstances which is threatening the whole living kingdom.
The alteration in precipitation, increase of temperature, and extreme weather occurrences have already started affecting the economy and condition of several countries. Climate change in India is also very impactful and is going to affect the livelihood of millions of people in the country.
How is India going to be affected by climate change?
Being an agrarian country, India is mostly dominated by people who depend on natural resources for their daily living. Rain forms an integral part of the economy as it boosts crop growth, thereby maintaining good trade relations with other countries of the world. India is also most vulnerable to climate change, and this is a global concern in the present day.
According to various survey data collected from the geological department, the pressure on India’s forests, soil, water, and air will be the maximum in the world by 2020. This condition is going to result in significant impacts upon the country, as follows.
The agricultural sector has a direct or indirect effect upon about two-thirds of the Indian population. Approximately 60% of this agrarian production depends upon the nature of rainfall. Therefore, climate variation can have a major effect on the rain-fed areas, decreasing crop productivity. The flow of southwest monsoon winds can also regulate the rainfall.
The trends of precipitation tend to threaten the food security of the nation and challenge its ability to provide for the nutritional requirements of the citizens. It has been speculated that this depression will result in a decrease in GDP by 2.8% and have a significant impact on the lives of Indian citizens by the year 2050.
India enjoys a prime location with the Himalayas in the north, which serves as a perennial water resource for the country. The glaciers of Himalayas provide ample water even in the dry season, contributing to prosperity. Several rivers originating in the neighboring countries also meander to India and have several tributaries and distributaries. Water has always been available in abundance in India.
However, global warming has accelerated the rate of melting of glaciers, and so, the probability of excessive flooding has increased. The states of Bihar and Kerala have recently been devastated by floods.
● Sea Level Rise
The SLR or Sea Level Rise is caused by oceanic thermal expansion, alterations in terrestrial water storage and melting of ice caps and glaciers. At present, India is struggling with heavy SLR, and it is not only creating a massive chance of extensive flooding. It is also damaging the oceanic biodiversity, fisheries, heritage of a place, agriculture, and availability of freshwater.
With increased thermal action in the upper layer of oceans, intense storms are also developing in the water bodies. Therefore, climate change in India is also leading to the inundation of low lying areas and coastal plains.
What are the speculations made by The World Bank about climate change in India?
The World Bank commissioned the Climate Analytics and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research for understanding the varied rainfall and temperature patterns in India. A severe shift in the general trend of weather has been observed.
The weather is expected to be increasingly warm, and more urban areas are expected to be affected. At an average, a 2° increase in global temperature and a 4° rise in India’s temperature is absolute.
The WB has observed a considerable decline in the level of rain since the 1950s. A sudden trigger in the rain is expected soon and will lead to both drought and flood in the subcontinent.
The demand for groundwater is dramatically increasing in the country, but it is being exploited at an even higher rate. In the deficiency of rainwater, the need for freshwater and groundwater is going to increase.
● Hydro energy
When the climate change in India starts having maximum impact, even the water-based services like hydroelectric power plants and hydro energy industry will be shaken vehemently. An increase in temperature will also threaten the future of the thermal sector.
With the increase in pollution and exploitation of natural resources, the health of all living beings is to be directly affected. Malnutrition, scarcity of pure water, lack of food, and heat waves will cause major diseases and disorders in the country.
Lastly, it can be stated that the effect of climate change in India is such that in the dry season, water precipitation has also escalated, and many states face scarcity and drought. One single country is dangerously facing both the extremes of a situation and is on a path of decline, owing to climate change.