Coral Reefs, known as the “rainforests of the sea”, are among the most productive and biodiverse ecosystems on our planet. They do not occupy more than one percent of the floor of the ocean, and yet are home to at least a quarter of the entire marine population, including various species of reptiles, bacteria, fungi, crustaceans, and 4000 or more varieties of fish.
Three basic types of coral reefs:
- Fringing Reef
- Barrier Reef
- Atoll Reef
Where can we find coral reefs?
Coral reefs are situated in tropical oceans of the earth that are near the equator. The Great Barrier Reef, located in Australia, is the world’s largest coral reef. The second biggest coral reef is in Central America’s Belize. Reefs are also present in the Red Sea, Hawaii, and other regions in tropical oceans.
How valuable are corals?
Healthy corals are not just biologically diverse but also economically valuable resources of the earth. Coral ecosystems provide food to millions of organisms (including humans), offer spawning grounds and habitat to fish species, protect coastlines from erosion and storms, and also provide a livelihood to locals from recreation, tourism, and fishing.
Gifts of coral reefs to mankind:
Biodiversity- Coral reefs are important nursery, spawning, feeding and breeding grounds for multiple organisms. Speaking of biodiversity, the rich variety of living organisms residing on a coral reef is actually greater than the diversity of species inhabiting shallow-water ecosystems. Yet corals do not occupy even one percent of the planet’s ocean floor. They support at least 800 coral species and 4000 exotic species of fish.
Fisheries- More than one billion people from all over the world consume fish that live and grow on coral reefs. There are also many species of fish that reside far away from corals but derive food from them. Fifty percent of America’s federally handled fisheries rely on coral reefs and its related habitats to a great extent. The yearly commercial value of fisheries in US that come from coral reefs reaches up to $100 million. Coral reefs fisheries situated in South East Asia also generate $2.4 billion every year.
Coastal protection- Coral reefs that are healthy have complex structures and rough surfaces that dissipate the force of waves. This gives protection to the shorelines from waves, storms, and ocean currents, preventing loss of life, erosion and major damages to property. So, coastlines that receive protection from reefs are stable and they are also a source of rich sand in the beaches.
Medicine- Many species that inhabit coral reefs produce specific chemical compounds necessary for attack or defense, particularly the stationary or slow-moving species such as sponges and nudibranchs. So, creatures that are found in the coral ecosystems are valuable sources of novel medicines being discovered to ease and induce labor, treat arthritis, cancer, ulcers, heart diseases, asthma, bacterial infections, viruses, and several other ailments. Corals are also a source of cosmetics, enzymes and nutritional supplements. In the years to come, more medicines will be developed from coral reefs if we can succeed in protecting and preserving them.
Recreation and tourism- Millions of snorkelers and scuba divers visit the coral reefs every year to enjoy rich sea life. Beaches that are protected by coral reefs are more crowded than the ones that are not. So, local economies earn billions of dollars from these visitors who participate in fishing trips and diving tours as well as facilitate the businesses, restaurants, and hotels located nearby.
Losing Coral Reefs: A Potential Threat
According to a report published by the World Resource Institute, named ‘Reefs at Risk Revisited, 75 percent of the coral reefs of the world are at great risks from global and local stresses. About a quarter of these valuable reefs has been ruined beyond repair. Overfishing along with harmful fishing techniques like usage of cyanide and explosives and deep water trawling are among the most destructive threats to the coral reefs.
Pollution from the land, such as releases from several power plants, trash, oil spills, and pathogens also endanger the existence of corals. Even plastic pollution is responsible for killing corals. If humans do not take major steps to protect the coral reefs, 90 percent of them will be damaged in the next ten years.
Ecological Disharmony And Its Biggest Consequences
Ecology is basically the study of relations of various organisms inhabiting an ecosystem with each other as well as with the surrounding environment. Ecological balance is nothing but maintaining a state of equilibrium between all living components of a particular ecosystem so that all can co-exist together. So, balance in the ecosystem is of supreme importance for the survival, stability, and existence of the environment. On the other hand, ecological disharmony is when a human-caused or natural disturbance ends up disrupting the ecosystem’s natural balance.
Devastating consequences of ecological imbalance
Acid rain, deforestation, greenhouse effect, radioactive fallout, urbanization, industrialization, marine, and air pollution, changing hydrology, animal and plant breeding, usage of pesticides, overgrazing, mining activities, and forest fires are the main causes of disharmony in the ecosystem. Because of such unevenness living organisms and the environment are bound to face disastrous consequences.
Health problems in human beings
Polluted water, land, and air generate multiple harmful biological and chemical agents that impact human health in negative ways. The plagues that killed thousands in the Middle Ages resulted from contaminated human waste spread by rats. No country can claim to be complete immunity against outbreaks of diseases that are transmitted environmentally. The outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in several countries in 2003 validates this statement.
Depletion of genetic resources
The genetic material present in the domesticated plants, livestock, trees, microorganisms and aquatic animals is important for the breeding programmes which achieve continued improvements in flavor, yield, durability, nutritional quality, disease and pest resistance and several other qualities. Due to intensive selection for uniformity and high performance, the genetic base of food product at present times has grown depressingly low.
If we want the soil of particular area to remain fertile, we have to protect it from degradation. Soil degradation occurs due to acidification, water-logging, improper use of land, salinisation, chemical degradation, and soil erosion. Erosion takes place both because of human activities and natural conditions.
The word ‘desert’ is an umbrella term encompassing four types of environmental complexes:
- Rainless deserts (places with almost no rainfall)
- Rainfall deserts (places that receive rainfall, but not sufficient for production of crops)
- Run-off deserts (regions where the yearly rainfall is variable and low)
- Man-made deserts (semi-arid regions that have turned into deserts because of man’s negligence and exploitation)
The two main causes of desertification are over-exploitation by humans of drylands and recurrent droughts.
Depletion of the Ozone Layer
The ozone layer is the protective layer of the earth that protects the earth from dangerous UV radiation. The depletion of the ozone layer is one of the severe consequences of ecological disharmony. It has direct impacts on human health and the environment.
Chemical contaminants often reach livestock and food from various sources. When we use pesticides to protect agricultural crops from pests, they contaminate the crops. Growth boosters given to animals and veterinary drugs contain chemicals that pass into dairy products and meat. Packaged food should be avoided as they contain food preservatives such as sodium nitrate and other chemicals. Even industrial effluents and industrial chemicals contaminate plants
Carbon dioxide is responsible for warming the air in the atmosphere’s lower levels, a phenomenon called the “greenhouse effect”. The ozone layer and water vapor present in the air also help to keep the earth warm by absorbing the infrared radiation. This is the reason why the temperature of the world has been increasing gradually, resulting in a reduction of glaciers. Global warming is also responsible for changes in climate and if not stop will melt polar ice caps, submerging the low lying coastal cities underwater.
We may conclude by saying that man plays a dominating role in maintaining ecological balance and creating ecological disharmony because of his thinking capacity as opposed to other living things inhabiting the planet. Therefore, we humans need to contribute positively to the maintenance of ecological balance. It is our responsibility to make sure that all living things live in harmony with each other for the sake of ecological stability. We can do this by planting more trees, conserving the natural habitat of wild animals, reducing the emission of harmful gases and checking air, water, and land pollution.
Ecological Imbalance: Major Causes Behind It
The stability of the earth’s ecosystem depends on the balance between the consumption and production of every single element in the ecosystem. Ecological imbalance or instability is a state in which an ecosystem fails to adjust to the changes in the environment. This type of situation arises when the changes are enormous and they exceed the capacity or resilience of the ecosystem.
Causative agents for ecological imbalance:
The major factor responsible for an imbalance in the existing ecosystem of the earth is the dominance of human beings in the global ecosystem. Man’s selfish and thoughtless ways to exploit the resources of the planet for satisfying his greed is the root cause of this diversion. Here are the main causes of imbalance in the ecosystem:
When rainwater is utilized for irrigation, water flows as a slow pace in the river and water quality downstream also declines. Construction of large reservoirs for power generation and irrigation also alter the ecosystem of the place. Irrigation also increases the contents of water vapor in the locality.
Use of Pesticides
When we apply pesticides on plants to protect them from plants, pesticides do not just contaminate the plant but also pollute surface and ground waters. So, the use of pesticides has adverse effects on the environment, creating ecological imbalance.
Green House Effect
Increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere is a big concern for environmentalists. The direct negative effect of this is the increased temperature of the earth’s surface, commonly known as ‘global warming’. If we do not take stern measures to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide, the consequences will be disastrous. There will be a drastic change in the climate in several places resulting in the melting of polar ice caps and submerging low-lying coastal cities (such as Chennai, London, and New York) under the oceans.
Acid rain, that is rainwater laden with acids, is the main reason behind air pollution. When we burn fossil fuels, large amounts of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide are released into the air. These oxides, after coming in contact with water vapor, produce nitric acid and sulphuric acid which come back to the surface of the earth when it rains. Acid rain is a great threat to the world’s ecological balance, harming plants and animals.
Ecosystem instability and environmental degradation that arise from overgrazing are mostly seen in semi-arid and arid regions of Central Asia, the Mediterranean basin and near-Eastern countries. The aftermath of this is desertification.
The clearance of forest cover is again a primary contributory factor in the disturbance of the ecology of our planet. Man has cut down forests to establish croplands, residential areas, and grasslands. In addition to this, forests are also targeted for fuel-wood and timber.
Repeated, natural forest fires that burn thousands of trees overnight cause severe harm to the ecosystem and are responsible for the degradation of the environment.
Industrialization is important to cater to the basic comforts and necessities of life for our increasing population. But, improperly planned and executed industrialization has resulted in acute ecological imbalance and environmental pollution worldwide.
The process of extracting minerals and processing them has a long-lasting ecological impact on the atmosphere, land, water and also the socio-economic environment of the people living there. One direct outcome of mining on the topography is surface disturbances. Reclamation of uneven, disturbed land due to mining wastes can rectify the environmental damage to a certain extent. Excessive surface mining has resulted in fragile ecosystems in several places.
Rapid urbanization gives birth to several environmental, health, and socio-economic problems. For instance, a slum settlement in towns and cities is clearly an outcome of unplanned urbanization that fails to provide housing facilities to all citizens. People, when unable to find a proper dwelling place, end up occupying any vacant land in the outskirts of a city and start living in a haphazard manner without civic facilities such as drainage, roads, water supply, electricity, and transport. Slum expansion destroys the natural ecosystems that surround the cities.
So, the basic causes of disharmony in the ecosystem and environmental pollution are urbanization, motorization, and industrialization. Human beings are accountable for the degradation of the quality of the environment and we require steady measures to bring back harmony into the ecosystem.
Eco-Friendly Practices to Incorporate Into Your Lifestyle
Like air, water, and land pollution worsen living conditions for every living being on this planet, we must switch to healthy habits before it’s too late. Here is a list of some eco-friendly practices that will improve the quality of your life as well as prove beneficial for the environment:
Water is one of the most valuable resources without which life on earth would not be possible, we cannot afford to waste water carelessly. There are so many people who do not have access to clean drinking water. Simple changes like turning off the tap while brushing the teeth, taking the shower for bathing instead of a bathtub, and spending less time showering can make a huge difference. If all of us join hands in conserving the resources nature has gifted us, life will be easier for our future generations.
As per survey reports, thousands of humans die of hunger every single day. So, wasting food is like stealing it from them who are poor. So, avoid buying excess food and then throwing them away. Also, always serve smaller portions to kids and repurpose leftovers. These clever tricks will also help you save a lot of money every month.
Reduce dependency on your car
With growing concerns regarding air pollution, reliance on private vehicles for the performance of daily activities is not doing any good for the environment. Instead of taking your car out ten times a day, plan in advance and try to complete multiple tasks at one time. Moreover, cycling or taking a walk will also benefit several organs of your body, strengthening your immune system. But, if you have no choice other than driving, the least you can do is add a good fuel catalyst like Green Plus to the vehicle. This will not just better fuel combustion but also enhance fuel efficiency and lessen harmful emissions.
Planting trees is perhaps one of the best eco-friendly practices. We all know that trees provide a natural habitat for wild animals, reduce soil erosion, give us food and shade, bring rain, absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Make planting trees a habit and plant at least 10 trees every year. Witnessing saplings grow into big trees before your eyes will deepen your connection with nature.
Use natural products for home cleaning
Keeping your home clean is a must to make sure that family members remain healthy. But, do you know that most of the cleaning ingredients available in the market contain harmful chemicals. These chemicals do a great job in removing stains, making the floors, sinks or tiles appear as good as new. But, you should not bring home these toxic products. Instead, rely on homemade or natural cleaning ingredients to remove dirt without having to use harmful materials.
Avoid using pesticides on your plants
Home gardening is a great way of utilizing your leisure time along with adding fresh foods to your regular diet. But, if you spray chemicals or pesticides on your plants, you are feeding harmful chemicals to your family members. Instead, use the food wastes to make natural fertilizers for your plants.
Recycling means transforming waste materials into usable materials again. We should practice more and more recycling of products for the sake of the environment. Recycling decreases our dependence on new raw ingredients and lessens the amount of garbage.
Travel at least once a year- In order to connect with nature
you have to spend quality time in the lap of nature, far from the madding crowd of the big cities. So, you should plan at least one trip every year and spend some quality time with your dear ones in a picturesque hill-station or an exotic beach destination. Also, by traveling we do not mean spending your time in an expensive hotel room and putting on more weight. Instead, go out, swim in the ocean, breathe in the fresh mountain air and discover unknown trails and hidden streams.
Incorporating the above-mentioned eco-friendly practices into your normal routine will help you live a more earth-friendly and much greener life. There is no end to such healthy habits that you can teach your children so that they grow up to be sensitive, eco-friendly human beings.
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