It is natural for us to forget how variable the earth’s climate has been centuries ago, across different geological time frames. The main reason behind it is the extent of such variability is beyond our imagination. Can you picture the earth as a big ball of ice, from the North Pole to the South Pole? No matter how difficult it is to imagine the earth shrouded in ice entirely, the truth is the oldest and longest period of glaciations existed for three hundred million years. Yes, we are talking about the Great Ice Age.
What is an Ice Age?
We can define an Ice Age as a prolonged period of decrease in the Earth’s temperature, resulting in the expansion of ice sheets as well as alpine glaciers in polar regions. An ice age is characterized by the presence of huge sheets of ice or glaciers in the Southern Hemisphere and the Northern Hemisphere and extremely cold climate throughout the year. There are remains of glaciers from the previous ice age in places like Antarctica and Greenland.
What gives birth to an ice age?
An ice age is not something that happens overnight. These ages have shaped the geography and history, but what factors result in the formation of one such age?
If in the northern hemisphere, temperatures in summer remain below the freezing point for thousands of years, an ice age begins. The earth’s orbit and tilt affect which areas get minimum sun rays.
The previous ice age:
The Earth has witnessed at least five ages with glaciers covering significant portions of the planet over a period of 4.6 billion years. The Pleistocene Epoch started nearly 2.6 million years from now and has ended 11,700 years ago. Humans evolved in the Pleistocene Epoch and inhabited almost all regions of the planet towards the end of it. The stage that followed it is currently known as the Holocene Epoch.
How was the climate during the Great Ice Age?
The climate used to be drier and colder during the Great Ice Age. Since most areas were covered with enormous sheets of ice, the rainfall was at least fifty percent less than current times. There were summers and winters, but the cooler summers failed to melt the ice. The average temperature of the Earth was 12 degrees approximately, not enough to melt snow in northern regions. As the snow piled up on the snow, glaciers formed.
Life on earth in the Ice Age
Even if human beings evolved, several species of large mammals became extinct due to the harsh climate of the Ice Age. One of the primary sources of information about the existence of life during this period in Los Angeles’ La Brea Tar Pits. Remains of plant life, insects, animals, and human skeletons are preserved here. Some of the animals inhabiting the Earth at that time were woolly mammoths, giant ground sloths, saber-toothed cats, and mastodons. Other mammals such as macrauchenia, tenrecs, and moonrats thrived in this era.
The latest ice age did not witness any dinosaur as they became effaced from the face of the planet millions of years before that. Crocodiles, turtles, lizards, pythons, and various other reptiles could be found. Birds also flourished, including geese, eagles, hawks, and ducks.
When it comes to vegetation, there was limited vegetation in most areas. Conifers, cypress, yews, oaks, and beeches were among the plants that survived the cold weather conditions. Prairie grasses and flowering plants such as rose, lily, and orchid could be spotted on the ground.
Approximately 13,000 years from now, seventy-five percent of the large animals of the Ice Age died out. Scientists have tried to understand for years the causes of such mass extinction. Two big reasons are vast climate change and overhunting by humans. Natural disasters in selective portions have also been responsible for wiping out large populations of animals.
Can we experience an ice age again? After learning about the Great Ice Age, if you are wondering whether we are heading into another ice age, we’ll answer your question. Scientists have pointed out that there might be another ice age in the future. However, global warming is instrumental in delaying the process. So, researchers have predicted that humans might start experiencing another ice age after at least 100,000 years.
Environmental Justice: Definition, Principles, And Importance In Today’s World
At the beginning of the 1980s in the United States of America, environmental justice became popular as a concept. It emerged as a social movement to enable the fair allocation of environmental burdens and environmental benefits.
What do we understand by the term “environmental justice”?
We can define environmental justice as meaningful involvement and fair treatment of all human beings irrespective of their color, race, income, or national origin in matters of implementation, development, and application of environmental laws, policies, and regulations. So, it stresses the equitable distribution of benefits and environmental risks, as well as rights to individuals and communities to flourish and function in society.
Among groups most affected by environmental injustice are the racial minority and the high-poverty groups. Poor people report at least 20 percent of health problems due to industrial impure air releases.
A wide range of environmental justice matters has affected African-Americans. Cancer Alley is one infamous example. The place has offices of 125 companies producing petrochemical products, impacting the lives of residents.
Indigenous groups have suffered a lot due to environmental inequality. Native Americans have been subject to abuses because of mining activities for extracting uranium in Western America.
Environmental justice and its key principles:
- Environmental Justice promotes the holiness of Mother Earth, interdependence and coexistence of all life forms, ecological unity and freedom from environmental destruction.
- Environmental justice opines that public policies should be framed free from bias or discrimination of any kind, offering justice and respect to all humans.
- Environmental justice also affirms political, cultural, economic, and environmental rights to all. Environmental Justice gives the right to all communities to take part in decision making, planning, enforcement, implementation, and evaluation as equal partners.
- It demands universal protection against perils like nuclear testing, extraction, disposal, and production of hazardous or toxic elements as all have the inborn claim to clean land, food, air, and water.
- Environmental justice is there to safeguard the rights of victims who have been subjected to environmental lawlessness. Such people are eligible for receiving quality treatment and full compensation.
- Environmental justice points out the necessity of educating existing and future generations in ecological and social matters.
- It clearly states that all workers should get a healthy and safe work environment and nobody can be forced to select unemployment or unsafe livelihood.
- It also prohibits military occupation, exploitation, and repression of peoples, cultures, lands, and other forms of life on Earth.
- Last, but not the least, environmental justice also requests us, the individuals, to make sensible choices when it comes to consumption of Mother Earth’s resources and produces less waste. We should make healthy lifestyle choices for the sake of future generations and the healing of the natural world.
Why do we need environmental justice?
- Our relationship with the environment- It defines the relationship of human beings with the environment. Empowerment makes us realize that preserving and protecting the environment is mandatory for protecting humans and other life forms.
- Sustainability- It is only through environmental justice that we can comprehend sustainability. Sustainability tells us that how to utilize renewable resources and reduce our dependence on non-renewable sources of energy.
- Conservation of resources- It also highlights the significance of fair usage and conservation of natural resources. Unfair distribution can lead to acute scarcity of resources in several areas.
- Fair distribution- It also increases awareness about the fair distribution of the resources of the planet. Justice applies whenever one group has more resources as opposed to another, also when one person attempts to take resources from the environment of another person.
- Strengthens environmental policies- Another positive aspect of environmental justice is that it reinforces environmental policies, regulations, and laws. Justice is of two types, namely, procedural justice and consequential justice. Environmental justice’s principles give strength to laws by advocating equal use of resources for all.
Environmental justice is of supreme importance in its struggle for maintenance and improvement of a healthy and clean environment for all, and especially for the weaker sections of the society who have been surviving closest to pollution sources. The Exxon Valdez disaster of 1989, 1972’s Pittston coal incident, and case against Chevron Refining in 1993 are notable instances from the past of environmental justice applied for the welfare of wronged citizens.
Canadian Environmental Policy: Workings And Impacts
Each government has its own way of dealing with things. However, almost all the governments of Canada invested equally in order to maintain the environmental harmony intact and keep the rich biodiversity of Canada alive. In order to deal with the serious concerns of climate change and maintain the air and water clean, Canada has taken aid from many global partnerships. Canadian Environmental Policy works on the basis of those contracts and deals.
Environmental Crisis of Canada:
There are various issues related to the environment that Canada is facing-
- Canada’s one of the biggest sources of income is the Oil and Gas industry. However, it contributes a lot to the harmful greenhouse gas emissions as well.
- The air in the cities is of really poor quality.
- There is plenty of fresh water available in Canada. However, the constant usage of that water has started ruining the biodiversity altogether.
All these problems have made Canada face the crisis of climate change more strongly than ever. That is why; the workings of Canadian Environmental Policy have become more than necessary with time.
There are many international agreements that have helped the Canadian government form the structure of Canadian Environmental Policy.
- UN Framework Convention on Climate Change:
UNFCC was formed in order to address the issues related to climate change. There are almost 195 parties involved in this treaty. Canada’s contribution here is to provide data related to greenhouse gas emissions. Canada also plays the part in properly by taking proper steps to reduce gas emission. It also helps other countries from the third world to fight climate change with the aid of resources.
- Paris Climate Agreement:
195 nations signed the Paris Climate Agreement in 2015 with the aim of keeping the issue of global warming under control. The goal was to limit the increase of temperature within 1.5 degrees Celsius from the earlier 2 degrees Celsius on a yearly basis.
- Climate and Clean Air Coalition:
This partnership was made between the government, the public, and the private sectors. The aim of this partnership is to replace the short-lived climate pollutants or better known as SLCP. These pollutants are extremely harmful to the health of the planet as they belong to the group of greenhouse gasses. Not only that, but they are also responsible for global warming and poor quality of air as well.
- Global Methane Initiative:
This international association seeks to reduce methane pollution. Another aim is to use methane as a source of energy. GMI takes special notice of all the production and consumption systems of oil and gas, agriculture, sewage system of the municipality, etc.
Apart from international partnerships, the Canadian government has taken several steps on its own as well.
- Clean Air and Climate Change Act:
This act is actually an amendment to the Environment Protection Act. According to this act, greenhouse gasses are a threat to both the environment and the health of human beings.
- Energy Efficiency Act:
The Energy Efficiency Act helps the government to regulate the import and export of products that consume energy. According to this Act, any product that consumes energy must be appropriate according to Canadian rules in order to get into Canada. Another aim of this Act is to use alternative sources of energy more and more.
- Regulatory Framework for Air Emissions:
The aim here is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants responsible for corrupting the air quality. The Industrial sector, transportation, consumer products, indoor air quality- these are the main four aspects for which this framework is dedicated to.
Canadian Environmental Protection Act:
This Act was established in 1999. This Act was immensely important for it made the government more empowered to use its full potential for protecting the health of both the environment and human beings. Canadian Environmental Protection Act established a proper standard for protecting the environment.
Apart from these, there are several other acts in work as well- The National Energy Board Act, Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change, Environmental Assessment Act, Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act, and many more.
All these acts work together to create a proper environmental policy and help Canada deal with climate change issues and other problems associated with it.
Greenpeace: An Organization Devoted To Saving The Environment
Greenpeace is one of the leading non-government organizations promoting and practicing environmentalism. Dorothy Stowe and Irving Stowe founded it in the year 1971 in Vancouver. Through its global coordinating body is in the city of Amsterdam, currently, Greenpeace has offices in more than 55 countries like India, Brazil, Italy, Mexico, Japan, Greece, Spain, Germany, New Zealand, Switzerland, etc.
Goal of Greenpeace
Greenpeace defines its goal in the following words: “To ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity.” It organizes campaigns on environmental issues of worldwide concern such as overfishing, climate change, genetic engineering, deforestation, anti-nuclear matters, and commercial whaling. It takes the help of ecotage, research, lobbying, and direct action for achieving its short-term and long-term goals.
Greenpeace explains its mission on its official website in the following words:
- Preserve biodiversity of the planet in all its diverse forms
- Take measures for stopping global warming to prevent the severe aftermaths of climate breakdown
- Promote and support the usage of renewable sources of energy
- Nurture non-violence and peace
History of origin of Greenpeace
The U.S. planned to conduct an underground test on nuclear weapons in the 1960s in Amchitka Island. Concerns arose that this experiment might result in earthquakes or even a tsunami. 7000 people protested, but the U.S. did not retreat. But, the next time the opposition grew firmer as the U.S. wanted to test a bomb at least five times more dangerous than the former one. Jim Bohlen, a war veteran, Dorothy Stowe, and Irving Stowe were among major opponents.
Irving Stowe arranged a benefit concert in Vancouver’s Pacific Coliseum on the 1970’s October 16th. The concert raised the funds for the pioneering Greenpeace campaign.
Early battle of Greenpeace against environmental pollution:
Greenpeace deserves credit for being one of the first initiators behind the formulation of sustainable development in 1993. As rightly stated by sociologists Christine Dasnoy and Marc Mormount, Greenpeace raised public awareness regarding issues like global warming. It was also among the major participants discussing ozone depletion in the Montreal Protocol.
Greenpeace has also protested on several occasions against coal mining operations and shipment of coal in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and Svalbard. It also criticizes petroleum extraction and has successfully blocked projects at Canada’s Athabasca oil sands.
- Greenpeace and the anti-nuclear campaign:
Greenpeace also published a newspaper advertisement in 1994 claiming that nuclear power Sellafield will take the life of 2000 humans in 10 years, affecting mostly children. It stated nuclear power as expensive, polluting, non-renewable, and dangerous. The advantages of nuclear power are far less when compared to health hazards. In fact, the test of nuclear weapons in Kazakhstan has made nearly 10,000 people suffer for three generations.
- A summary of forest campaign by Greenpeace
Greenpeace intends to protect primary forests from their greatest enemy, deforestation. It has accused leading corporations like Nike, McDonald’s, KFC, Unilever, Kit Kat, etc. for having close connection to deforestation activities in tropical rainforest regions. Several companies have been forced to revise their policies.
One instance of the success of the organization’s initiatives is its protests against Nestle company’s Kit Kat bars made with the help of palm oil. Greenpeace released a video that became viral with more than 1 million views. This compelled Nestle to promise to the public to shun the usage of palm oil in the future.
- “Save the Arctic” campaign
The “Save the Arctic” campaign started in 2012 for stopping gas and oil drilling, military operations, and industrial fishing in the Arctic region. Greenpeace demanded that steps must be taken to protect the ecosystem and vulnerable wildlife.
Greenpeace and its current environmental works:
At present, Greenpeace looks at global warming as the greatest threat to the environment of the Earth.
- It has given an ultimatum to industrialized countries for reducing their emission of greenhouse gases by 40 percent in 2020.
- It has also offered financial help to developing countries for building renewable energy capacity.
- Another strong point stressed by Greenpeace is stopping deforestation of forest lands and planting trees in large numbers.
- Greenpeace has joined hands with EREC to fulfill its vision of creating a world with 80 percent of the total energy requirement that will be produced from sustainable sources like sun, water, wind, etc.
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